Coca

The traditional city

Twice treacherously taken by the Romans, it was the birthplace of Roman emperor Theodosius. In the second half of the fifteenth century, the Fonseca family gave an imposing brick castle, great historical importance, and several excellent mausoleums preserved in the church. Since the nineteenth century, it owes its prosperity to its pine forest.

Plan your stay in Coca

The extraordinary Moorish castle and the Church of Santa Maria, along with the Puerta de la Villa and stone boars are what you always have to see in Coca; a journey that can take about three hours. A few kilometers to the west is one of the finest Roman villas and least visited of Spain: the Almenara-Puras; visit almost essential. To the north are two other important medieval towns: Cuellar and Olmedo (closer, but in the province of Valladolid). Another option is to top off a second day of the break in Madrid direction (south), next to the highway is the major Arevalo, where it is also possible to use half-day visit.

Do you want to visit this place?

Located on high ground with several rivers around, since 550 a.de C., Coca became one of the most important towns in the Celtiberian tribe of the vacceos, with a perimeter of twenty hectares and about six thousand inhabitants.

Four centuries later, after numerous sieges, the rich city was extorted by the Roman general Lucullus Licinius. It got its inhabitants handed him a staggering 2,216 kilos of silver; pretext of maintaining peace with the neighboring tribe of the carpetanos, demanded leave there a small garrison, but on entering its walls Legionnaires killed the entire male population. The caucenses Romanized then would support the general Sertorius in his rebellion against Rome; in 74 a. C. General Pompey asked them to welcome a group of his wounded in combat; once inside these they turned out to be chosen troops took control of the city; Fortunately, the little resistance prevented a new slaughter. In the following centuries it became a thriving place where Roman families lived; around the year 346, the Roman Emperor Theodosius the Great was born.

In the 939 it was repopulated by Christians, being destroyed by the caliph Abd al-Rahman III. In 1085, Alfonso VI retook it, and used the remains of the Roman and Visigoth walls to fortify the town.

Door to the town (Antonio Passaporte)

In the Castilian civil war the Fonseca supported Alfonso and Isabel during the rule of their stepbrother the king Enrique IV; Between June and August of 1464 Coca was besieged; And in the battle of Olmedo (1467) passed away Fernando de Fonseca, brother and successor of the bishop in the dominion of Coca. The Fonseca built the castle, a church, the convent of Franciscans and a hoe to store the grains; Also founded a chair of grammar, rhetoric and Latin poetry.

In the sixteenth century, wine cultivation spread throughout the region, being celebrated for its quality by writers such as Cervantes, Mateo Alemán, Tirso de Molina, Lope de Vega or Quevedo. In 1785 it was decided to demolish a large part of the town to air the houses and fight against the plague that affected its inhabitants.

In 1807 a Crystalline Factory was inaugurated, but only a year later the troops of General Milhaud, who set fire to the municipal archive, were established there; When leaving Coca in September of 1812 would ruin the beautiful interior of the castle. In 1861 the company Resinera Segoviana was founded by the Falcón brothers, who brought from the French town Mont de Marsán a system of obtaining the resin. The business prospered and today is home to an International Symposium on Natural Resins. It was as a result of this exploitation resinera when the demographic and economic explosion of the town took place.

The extraordinary Moorish castle and the Church of Santa Maria, along with the Puerta de la Villa and stone boars are what you always have to see in Coca; a journey that can take about three hours. A few kilometers to the west is one of the finest Roman villas and least visited of Spain: the Almenara-Puras; visit almost essential. To the north are two other important medieval towns: Cuellar and Olmedo (closer, but in the province of Valladolid). Another option is to top off a second day of the break in Madrid direction (south), next to the highway is the major Arevalo, where it is also possible to use half-day visit.

The oldest vestige that can be visited in Coca are the three vacceos boars in granite. Two are at the entrance of the villa and another is embedded in the castle. At the door of the Villa is the so-called Cruz de Septién (in Cardeñosa stone), which was left in testament by Antonio de Septién to his city in 1620. Of the two hundred meters of subsistent walls stands the Puerta de la Villa, with three Flared arches framed by alfiz and half a dozen large windows. On the north side there is a magnificent Calvary painted in wood from the 13th century. When the wall was dismantled in 1785, part of its stone was sold to be used in El Puente Chico and another one for the Cristal Factory that would be built twenty years later.

Along the Paseo de las Olmas or Avenida del Caudillo you will arrive at the impressive Castle, begun to build in 1463 by the Moorish Avila Alí Caro and his brothers Aceyte and Yuçafe. It consists of three defensive lines of square shape, formed by a great moat and two walls supported in towers and towers in their angles. The Tower of Homage is square, with angles occupied in turn by circular towers of smaller size. It was built in brick, reserving the stone for saeteras, capitals, columns of the patio, arches of doors, balustrades and corbels. It has a rear door with drawbridge access. In its interior two levels of round trip: saeteras and artillery holes. The interior, despite the damage suffered in the nineteenth century is typical of a palace, the living room with double fireplace is the current museum or weapons room that has in its upper part another museum room with archaeological remains. It also has the largest set of Mudéjar paint in red, blue and black on stucco. In the seventeenth century the castle was the prison of illustrious traitors to the king: the Duke of Medina-Sidonia, the Count of Orgaz and the Marquis of Govea and Mancera. In 1954, the mayor Don Arturo Acosta García obtained from the Dukes of Alba his cession to the Ministry of Agriculture, which entrusted the restoration works until 1959 to the Academies of San Fernando and History. Then there was installed the School of Forest Forces that is still in operation.

On Lorenzo Castillo Street you will arrive at the Hospital de la Merced (15th century) for pilgrims on the Camino de Santiago route that crossed the peninsular center. It was demolished at the beginning of century XX to construct the present inaugurated, in 1907, that worked until the end of century as medical dispensary and that now is in rehabilitation for sanitary use.

Castle of Coca

In the main square there is the Church of Santa Maria, the only one that survives of the eight that there was and that has been documented since 1247. By the parochial file it follows its trajectory from 1442. In 1460, the lord of the town, the archbishop Alonso de Fonseca founds in her a chapel that endows with twelve chaplains, which gives idea of ​​its importance. Some years later Don Pedro Fernandez de Solis, native of the town, provided another adjoining chapel. At the end of the XV century its deterioration state advised its demolition, being reconstructed between 1503 and 1520. In 1711 the stained glass windows are restored and in the last third of the XVIII century are replaced the main altarpiece and collaterals by others stewed by Sebastián de las Llaneras. In addition, the church houses the Saint Christ of St. Nicholas (Romanesque carving of the transition to the Gothic), the Calvary (sculptural group of a disciple of Berruguete); And Santa Ana, from the fifteenth century.

In the choir of the church a layer of blue velvet with fleurs de lis in gold is conserved that belonged to king Carlos VIII of France. In 1494, in Belite (Italy), she protected the French king from his knights with Antonio de Fonseca, who, as ambassador of the Catholic Monarchs, told him to desist from the war with the Pope, defying the signed agreements between The two kingdoms. A gesture of nobility that is well remembered.

The most important works of art of the church are the mausoleums of the Fonseca family, made in Genoa around 1520: on the side of the Gospel of the high altar the archbishop of Seville don Alonso de Fonseca and on the side of the Epistle his nephew don Juan Rodríguez de Fonseca, bishop of Burgos. In the left arm of the cruise is that of Don Fernando de Fonseca Ulloa and his second wife, Dona Teresa de Ayala. In the right arm of the cruise the one of Don Alonso de Fonseca and his mother doña Maria de Avellaneda. In the center is the headstone of Don Antonio de Fonseca.

The other monuments are in the upper part of the city, on the banks of the Eresma. In the Plaza de la Santa Cruz was the Church of San Nicolás (1247) of which only its tower of masonry and brick, typically Mudejar remains. Its square-shaped tower has at its base five rows of blind arches; At the top there are four rows of arches.
Two other points of interest are the Roman Cloaca and the Centro Cultural Fonseca; Currently public library, archaeological deposit and exhibition hall.

Must-see...

Dónde dormir en Coca
Entrada al Castillo
Dónde dormir en Coca
Patio interior del Castillo

Practical Data

Coordinates

41º 13’ 04’’ N, 4º 31’ 20’’ W

Distances

Segovia 50 km, Valladolid 60 km, Madrid 143 km

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